Social Studies Study Guide Chapter 3 Test Thursday, March 9

By March 6, 2023 March 8th, 2023 Mrs. Kathryn Milton
  1. The group of Europeans that reached North America about 500 years before Columbus were the Vikings.
  2. Technology is scientific knowledge or tools.
  3. Expedition is a trip taken with the goal of exploring.
  4. Navigation is the science of planning and following a route.
  5. Explorers had to be entrepreneurs because they set up and ran their expeditions just as an entrepreneur sets up and runs a business.
  6. During the Reconquista, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain could not sponsor Columbus’s expedition because King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were too busy fighting a war.
  7. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain supported Columbus’s expedition across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492.
  8. Renaissance means “rebirth”. It began in Italy and then spread across Europe. This was a time of new ideas.
  9. Ferdinand Magellan was the leader of the first expedition to sail around the world.
  10. Juan Ponce de Leon explored and claimed for Spain what is now the state of Florida
  11. Vasco Nunez de Balboa explored the land that connects the Americas and became the first Spanish explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean.
  12. Henry Hudson explored and claimed for Holland much of what is now the state of New York and surrounding areas.
  13. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explored and claimed for Spain much of what is now the southwestern United States.
  14. Hernando de Soto explored and claimed for Spain much of the southern half of what is now the United States.
  15. Columbus sailed west from Europe hoping to find a more direct water route to Asia.
  16. The Spanish Conquistador that took control of the Inca Empire in Peru was Francisco Pizarro.
  17. A treaty is an agreement between countries.
  18. Spanish explorers and soldiers became known as conquistadors or conquerors.
  19. Reform – to change.
  20. Northwest Passage – a waterway in North America thought to connect the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean which would be a shortcut to Asia. The first country to find the Northwest Passage would control an important new trade route between Europe and Asia would gain wealth and power.
  21. Verrazano, Cartier, and Hudson were sent to search for the Northwest Passage in North America.
  22. Explorer Henry Hudson made four voyages in search of the Northwest Passage.
  23. Henry Hudson’s third voyage was paid for by the Dutch East India Company.
  24. Hudson spent a month exploring a river in what is now New York. He named the river after himself and claimed the entire Hudson River valley for the Dutch rulers.
  25. During Hudson’s last voyage, his crew mutinied or rebelled and sent Henry Hudson and eight others adrift at sea.
  26. Three problems the European explorers faced were 1. They needed better maps and new technology for long voyages. 2. They needed a lot of money to pay the costs of their expeditions. 3. They faced great dangers in exploring unknown seas and lands.
  27. Christopher Columbus thought the lands he had reached were Asia.
  28. Amerigo Vespucci began to think that maybe Earth was larger than most people thought because the places that he saw did not fit Marco Polo’s descriptions of Asia.
  29. Balboa’s crew reached the Pacific Ocean proving that Amerigo Vespucci was right about an unknown continent.
  30. European trading companies began paying for expeditions and sending explorers to look for the Northwest Passage because they wanted to set up trade routes.

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