Science Study Guide – Test September 27, 2022

By September 20, 2022 Mrs. Kathryn Milton

Science Chapter 1 Study Guide           Test Tuesday, September 27th

  1. The four elements most abundant in living things are: carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen.
  2. Biogeochemical cycle is the cycling of chemical elements through living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
  3. Ecosystems are composed of biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) parts.
  4. Runoff is the precipitation that flows over the surface of the soil.
  5. Collection is the process by which precipitation is gathered into a body of water.
  6. The ocean is the greatest source of water vapor.
  7. Photosynthesis is the process that allows green plants to make sugar from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and that releases oxygen into the atmosphere.
  8. Cellular respiration is the process in cells by which oxygen and glucose are used to produce energy and carbon dioxide.
  9. Fossil fuels are a source of energy formed from dead plants and animals.
  10. Nitrogen fixation is converting nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form that can be used by plants.
  11. Legume is a plant that hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nodules on its roots.
  12. Nodules are a swelling on a plant root that contains nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
  13. Denitrification is the process that releases nitrogen from the soil back into the atmosphere.
  14. Photochemical smog is the brown smog produced when air pollutants react with sunlight.
  15. Emission is a pollutant released into the atmosphere.
  16. Acid precipitation is the precipitation that is more acidic than normal rainwater.
  17. By cutting down the trees in a forest will cause the ecosystem to lose nitrogen. It can cause too much carbon dioxide to build up since there would not be enough producers to use up the carbon dioxide.
  18. Acid precipitation soaks into the soil and can destroy the ability of trees to absorb the nutrients they need.
  19. God designed the carbon and oxygen cycle and the nitrogen cycle to be balanced in order to allow life to thrive on Earth.
  20. Humans can disrupt these cycles. Carbon and nitrogen become pollutants when too much of them are introduced into an ecosystem.
  21. Smog is harmful to the environment and to human health.
  22. Evaporation is the process that changes liquid water to water vapor.
  23. Transpiration is the process that water is evaporated from the leaves of plants.
  24. Precipitation is water released from the clouds in the form of rain, sleet, hail, or snow.
  25. Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water.
  26. Know the water cycle.

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